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Chapter I: Introduction

I.1 Note to the reader

I.2 Personal background and motivation

I.3 Research questions

Chapter II: Methodology

II.1 Practice-based research

II.2 Urban Alphabets as a research tool

II.3 Workshops as a research setup

II.3.1 Participant observation

II.3.2 Interviews

II.3.3 Surveys

Chapter III: Related work

III.1 Previous research in the field

III.2 Artistic and design reference projects

III.3 Related smartphone applications

Chapter IV: Theoretical framework

IV.1 Defining public space

IV.1.1 Physical vs. subjective space concepts

IV.1.2 Lefebvre's differential space

IV.1.3 Public space in seven aspects

IV.2 Public space and the body

IV.2.1 Grosz: Relationshipbs between bodies and cities

IV.2.1 Sennett: The modern, passive body

IV.3 Public space and everyday life

IV.4 Behavior in public

IV.4.1 Proper and improper behavior in situations

IV.4.2 The right to civil inattention

IV.4.3 Involement and involvement shields

Chapter V: The Urban Alphabets project

V.1 Project timeline: from a vague idea to the current project

V.2 Interfaces and functionalities

V.2.1 Smartphone applications

V.2.2 Web interface

V.2.3 Urban screens

V.3 Gallery setups in Helsinki and Liverpool

V.4 Visible outcomes

V.5 Statistics

Chapter VI: Discussion

VI.1 Answering the research questions

VI.1.1 Changes in public space

VI.1.1.1 Perceived space

VI.1.1.2 Acted space

VI.1.1.3 Conceived space

VI.1.1.4 Bystander's reaction to using the app

VI.1.1.5 Urban Alphabets as an involvement shield

VI.1.1.6 Temporality vs. durability of the changes

VI.1.1.7 Site-specificity of the letters

VI.1.2 User types and interests

VI.1.3 Use scenarios

VI.2 Other issues the project raises

VI.2.1 Types of letters in public spaces

VI.2.2 Who is allowed to speak in public space?

VI.3 Outcome summary

Chapter VII: Conclusion

VII.1 Looking back: How did it go?

VII.1.1 Lessons learned and important steps

VII.1.2 Transferability of the study and its results

VII.2 Looking forward: What's next?

VII.2.1 The future of Urban Alphabets

VII.2.2 Personal future in an emerging field of research


Literature and web references


Web links


Printed appendices

Digital appendices